Ivan Franko's correspondence
From the great epistolary heritage of Ivan Franko, which numbered more than six thousand letters, preserved only about 900 autographs of letters and dozens of publications. In our edition includes almost all known today Franko's letters. They arranged in chronological order, so you can trace the evolution of life and work of the writer to reveal the diversity of his interests and connections.
Compilation and publication of Ivan Franko's letters began during his life. Were issued:
- Correspondence of Michael Dragomanov with Michael Pavlyk (1876 – 1895). Prepared and edited by Michael Pavlik, vols. 2 – 8. Chernivtsi, 1910 – 1912 (here among the many letters to Dragomanov contained also Franko's letters);
- Drahomanov M. Letters to Iv. Franko and others. 1881 – 1886. Lviv, 1906.
After the death of Ivan Franko center collecting correspondence writer was Lviv. Here are regularly published collections "Ivan Franko. Articles and materials", and from 1966 – "Ukrainian Literature", which published many letters (to V. Davydjak, O. Roshkevych, Uliana Kravchenko, K. Popovic, V. Biletsky, P. Grabowski et al.). Later, the center focus of Franko's manuscripts and letters became the Institute of Literature named after T.H.Shevchenko of National academy of sciences of Ukraine, there remains almost the entire epistolary heritage of the writer (Department of Manuscripts, fund № 3). Some letters – in other repositories: in Leningrad, Chernihiv, Kharkiv, Kyiv and more.
Many Franko's letters published in various publications:
- Materials for cultural and social history of Western Ukraine. T. 1. Correspondence of Franko and Dragomanov. K., 1928;
- Literary heritage. T. 1. Ivan Franko. K., 1956 (letters to the I.O. Baudouin de Courtenay, O. Veselovsky, V.N. Peretz, I. Shyshmanov, J. Vrchlicky, N.V. Lysenko, M.F. Komarov, O.S. Makovej, F. K. Vovk et al.)
- Over a hundred years (to F. Rzehorz, V.M. Domanytsky);
- Soviet literature (to O.M. Pypin, B.S. Poznansky);
- magazines "Culture" (to I.M. Belej, A. Partytsky)
- "Our culture" (to M.Buchinsky)
- "Red Path" (to O.Pchilka)
- "Life and Revolution" (to M. Kotsjubinsky, O. Ja. Konysky)
- "Ukraine" (to V. Lukic, Scesny Selsky)
- "Literary Criticism" (to A.M. Veselovsky, M. Stasyulevych, V.D. Spasovych, E. Orzeszko)
- "October" (to A.V. Krushelnytsky, T. Kulchitsky, A. Atlas, E. Zdzyarsky etc.).
Some letters first published in the 20th volume of works in 20 vols., Kyiv, 1956 (to V. Hnatiuk, B.Grinchenko, V. Zahayevych, J. M. Belej, V. Zhukovetska, A. Ju. Krymsky, O.S. Makovej, V. Yakibjuk etc.).
There publishing letters prepared by foreign scientists:
- M. Molnar, M. Mundyak Letters of Ivan Franko to Czech scientists and writers. – "October", 1956, № 4;
- Links Franko with Czechs and Slovaks. Bratislava, 1957 (to J. Vrchlicky, B. Drozh, I. Polivka, Z. Tobolka, A. Chorny et al.)
- Makowski S., Szyszko P. Z nieopublikowanej korespondencyi Iwana Franka z Adamem Wiślickim. – «Slavia orientalis», 1958, N 1;
- Jakóbieс M. Iwan Franko i Vatroslav Jagić. – «Slavia orientalis», 1959, N 2, та ін.
In the Franko's fund at the Institute of Literature stored letters to people who were closest family (wife O.F. Horuzhynska, the first bride O.M. Roshkevych and its relatives, etc.) or literary environment of I. Franko – Ukrainian activists and writers (M.P.Dragomanov, M.I. Pavlik, V. Hnatiuk, M.M.Kotsyubynsky, A. Y. Krymsky, Lesja Ukrainka, M. Lysenko, M. P. Starycky, O. S. Makovej, P. Grabowski, B.D.Grinchenko, Y. V. Zharko, V.G. Shchurat, V.M. Domanytsky, N.I. Kobrynska, M.F. Komarov, P.G. Zhytetsky, B. Zaklynsky, A.K. Kovalenko, A. J. Konysky, A.V. Krushelnycky, Basil Lukic, M.F. Sumtsov, D. Kulchitsky, etc.), editors of various newspapers and magazines, Russian scientists, writers and cultural figures (I.A. Baudouin de Courtenay, S.P. Vengerov, O.M. Veselovsky, V. N. Peretz, O. Pypin, V.D. Spasovych, M. Stasyulevych, Imperial Academy of Sciences), Hungarian, Polish, Czech, Bulgarian and German writers, scientists, public figures (G. Antal, A. Vislitskyy, B. Wyslouch, J. Vrchlicky, E. Engel, Y. Zhatkovych, E. Zdziarsky, J. Karlovich, I. Kopernytsky, E. Orzeszko, I. Polivka, F. Rzehorz, Z. Tobolka, A. Cherny, I. Shyshmanov, B. Yahych), the magazine «Auf die Höhe», scientific dictionary «Otto», newspaper «Słówo Polskie» and so on. Collecting of Franko's letters continues, from time to time there are new posts.
Franko's letters is a valuable source for the study of his biography, works, literary, aesthetic and political views, to show the writer's participation in social and literary life, in the revolutionary-liberation movement. They give a lot of material for advanced study of contemporary socio-political and aesthetic thought in Ukraine.
Letters in foreign languages are printed in the original language. Immediately after the text provides a translation.
Texts of letters submitted by the modern spelling while retaining lexical and morphological features of the original. Punctuation – by modern standards.
Author's reductions disclosed in square brackets. Unread words, and the damaged areas autographs indicated by three dots in the broken brackets (…).
Titles of works, journals, and excerpts from works that are in the letters is in quotes, or without quotes, presented in quotation marks – in accordance with modern spelling norms. Author's highlights marked as bold.
Letters are arranged chronologically. All dates in their exact transcription submitted at the place where they put in the letter. Editor's indication of the place and date of writing the letter is assigned regardless of the presence in the body of the message the author to give above the text to the left.
I.Franko's letters dated new style.
Author's signature is not supplemented (Jvan, I. Fr., Iv. Franko, Iva…).
Translations of foreign words and expressions are given in screenTips.
Explanation and various clarifications made by the writer, put into text and highlighted with a different background color. Obvious errors and omissions corrected letters without reservations. Some reduction is marked by three dots in square brackets […].
Note to every letter contains the following information: date and place of publication of the letter, the source, followed by a letter printed in this edition (first prints, autographs, photocopy), storage and fund (for autographs), justification of dating (if necessary).
We give a real comment (short description of mentioned persons; disclosed the content of the events referred to in the letter; bibliographic information for works that are mentioned, etc.).
Letters to Franko not all preserved, so the notes are not always explained by expressions such as "Your letter received…".
When commenting on letters and notes compilers used the experience as well as facts are gathered and expressed by the authors of previous editions, including works in 20 volumes, and "Chronicles the life and works of Ivan Franko" (compiled by M.O. Moroz, stored in the department of manuscripts of the Institute of literature named after Taras Shevchenko).